TestoPrime Reviews 2021: Legit Testosterone Booster or Scam Pills? – Blog – The Island Now

Testosterone is an essential hormone in any man’s life. The hormone is responsible for masculine characteristics, and it also helps regulate libido, bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass, and strength.
Testosterone production in a man’s life reaches its peak from puberty to adult life and starts deteriorating at the age of 30. Low testosterone levels may lead to undesired effects such as a low sex drive, fatigue, low lean muscle mass, depression, and erectile dysfunction.
If you are constantly experiencing low energy levels, feeling irritable, and are struggling to focus, you could be experiencing the effects of low T-levels. The situation may be caused by age, injury to the testes, metabolic disorders, anti-cancer medication, and dysfunction of the pituitary glands.
Whether you are experiencing low T-levels due to age or other factors, there is no reason to be overly concerned about losing your masculinity because TestoPrime has formulated a 12-ingredient natural formula to help you enjoy your youthful years. Read the article below TestoPrime review, one of the best testosterone boosters in the market.
⇒ Visit the Official Website of TestoPrime for the Best Discount
TestoPrime is a nutritional testosterone booster from Wolfson Berg Limited, a Cyprus-based dietary company. The supplement is made from a scientifically researched formula, using clinically backed natural ingredients.
The ingredients are naturally acquired and clinically tested, and therefore you do not need a doctor’s prescription to use the TestoPrime supplement.
If you are looking for a natural testosterone booster to improve your physique and regain your confidence, TestoPrime is the best candidate for the job. The testoprime supplement is GMO-free, Soy-free, vegan, and free from additives or dyes.
TestoPrime is made in a GMP-certified facility with natural, premium, FDA-approved ingredients. The company has spent millions of dollars in third-party testing and retesting to ensure their supplement’s quality and efficacy and maintain the highest manufacturing standards.
With these testosterone boosters, you can avoid standing in long queues at a doctor’s office or moments of embarrassment that you need to explain to a health professional. This product is easily accessible with no trouble, delivered to your doorstep, at your discretion.
Every TestoPrime order gives you access to limitless resources such as supplementing your testosterone production with foods and exercises.
Although TestoPrime supplement is made from natural, scientifically tested ingredients, the company knows that people’s bodies are different, and a percentage may not experience favorable effects with TestoPrime. They believe in every client’s satisfaction, and that’s why they give a 100% money-back guarantee, if you are unhappy with the results.
TestoPrime gives you a guarantee through proven results from real customer reviews. It addresses the symptoms of low T levels and ensures that it will not happen again by addressing the root cause of the problem.
The brand provides that your body makes the maximum use of the available testosterone as it works to increase testosterone production and improve your quality of life.
It is undoubtedly the best testosterone supplement in the market because it’s made from premium scientifically backed ingredients in GMP and FDA-approved facilities. Before you consider using this product, read on for some of its pros and cons:
⇒ Click Here to get the Latest Deals on TestoPrime
It is made using 12 natural, scientifically-backed premium ingredients with higher doses than you can find in regular testosterone boosters.
The company has used prevalent natural testosterone boosting ingredients like green tea, aspartic acid, etc that helps in testosterone production let’s discuss in detail in the section below:
D- Aspartic acid is a naturally occurring amino acid that helps the body produce luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Aspartic acid helps to subsequently stimulate Leydig cells to synthesize and release testosterone. this aspartic acid helps improve muscle strength and better weight loss results.
Panax Ginseng is an ancient Chinese root and has been used as an aphrodisiac in treating sexual dysfunction. Studies have shown increased libido and improved sex drive with the use of Panax Ginseng.
The root has other health benefits such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, improved brain function, memory, mood-boosting, and enhanced immune system.
Ashwagandha is an ancient medicinal herb that is native to India and North Africa. Extracts from this herb have various health benefits, such as increasing the body’s energy levels and reducing stress and anxiety. The section has antioxidant properties and may help in testosterone boosting and testosterone production, resulting in increased energy levels, increased mass of muscle and strength, improved brain function, and enhanced vitality.
Fenugreek is a native Indian and Chinese medicinal plant with various health benefits such as increased testosterone level and sperm count. The extract also helps the body improve mental alertness and mood and increase metabolism, promoting a healthier fat loss.
Green tea is a favorite beverage for many, primarily due to its health benefits like fat burning. green tea has high levels of polyphenols, which are potent antioxidants.
Green tea extract contains epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which prevents testosterone’s breakdown into the harmful DHT, maintaining the body’s testosterone at optimum levels.
Pomegranates are rich in polyphenols which decrease blood pressure risks and improve blood flow to the peripheral organs such as the penis. Improved blood flow comes with benefits such as increased energy level and enhanced stamina.
Zinc is an essential mineral in a man’s reproductive health. The element helps produce important reproductive hormones such as testosterone and slow down testosterone conversion to estradiol.
Also known as pyridoxine, Vitamin B6 is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in boosting testosterone level, reducing fatigue, and improving energy.
Vitamin B5 Or pantothenic acid plays a vital role in converting fats to energy, promoting a healthy way of losing weight and keeping the body revitalized and energized.
Garlic extracts contain a compound known as allicin, which improves blood flow to the vital organs, supplying them with energy for increased stamina. garlic extract also promotes digestion and food metabolism, promoting healthy weight loss.
Although black pepper is widely used as a spice. black pepper can help you get maximum benefits from TestoPrime by increasing its absorption by 30%.
Vitamin D helps regulate testosterone level, which boosts weight loss and improves a man’s overall vitality. Vitamin also increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body for strong and healthy bones.
⇒ Click Here to learn more about the Ingredients of TestoPrime
TestoPrime is made from 12 naturally sourced, premium ingredients backed with scientific research to increase your body’s vitality. The supplement provides an easy and healthy way of regaining your natural vigor and self-confidence without enduring painful injections or strenuous exercises in the gym.
Testosterone injections are painful and expensive, not forgetting the numerous costs incurred with every doctor’s visit. It gives you the benefits of a reasonable, balanced testosterone level at the comfort and discretion of your home.
The supplement increases physical and mental energy by improving blood circulation to the vital organs and muscle strength, which comes with an energy supply throughout the body. TestoPrime can make a dull day at work brighter by improving your mood and motivation and keeping your mind alert at all times.
Taking TestoPrime supplements promotes a healthy way of losing excess weight by helping the body burn fats and increase muscle mass. You don’t have to worry about losing your physique and getting out of shape. TestoPrime helps you regain your self-confidence and enjoy your youthful years.
Low levels of testosterone may negatively affect your quality of life in a significant way. You may be experiencing extreme bouts of fatigue which may bring about difficulty in focusing and low motivation.
Taking four capsules of TestoPrime daily may help you recover from stress associated with life’s responsibilities and regain your natural spark along with an appealing physique.
TestoPrime provides an affordable and safe way of maintaining testosterone at its optimum levels. The supplement raises testosterone level by 44%, which comes with an array of benefits such as:
TestoPrime reduces stress by up to 71.6% by reducing cortisol levels, the hormone responsible for causing stress. Pressure can come with undesirable effects such as unhealthy weight gain and low quality of life. Lowering levels of cortisol reduce stress which in turn promotes a healthy and fit lifestyle.
Low levels of testosterone may cause unhealthy weight gain in men. TestoPrime helps to regulate the body’s testosterone level which promotes muscle growth. Muscle growth is the best way of burning body fat, and TestoPrime helps burn body fat by 16%.
TestoPrime stimulates the body to produce more testosterone, which is the hormone involved in building muscles in men. The supplement increases muscle mass and strength by 138.7%, which works well when combined with strength training and exercises.
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TestoPrime also helps improve blood flow to the muscles, which in turn increases body strength and vigor.
TestoPrime’s combination of ingredients reduces the symptoms of depression and low mood associated with a low level of testosterone. The supplement also helps to reduce fatigue and improve alertness which in turn improves mood.
TestoPrime enhances testosterone production and maintains it at optimum levels. Balanced testosterone levels create a conducive environment for the production of red blood cells, which improves blood volume.
The supplement increases energy by ensuring adequate blood circulation to the muscles and vital organs and converting fat into fuel by 12%.
Most men experience decreased bone density as they age because of reduced levels of testosterone. TestoPrime stimulates the body to produce more testosterone, increasing bone density and reducing the risk of osteoporosis.
Research shows that men with higher testosterone levels are at a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. TestoPrime improves the body’s testosterone levels, which, according to research, enhances a person’s level of alertness and improves memory and processing speed.
Some TestoPrime’s ingredients increase the uptake of oxygen in the body, leading to increased Nitric Oxide levels, which helps relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the vital organs.
Nitric Oxide also improves the delivery of oxygen to the muscles and vital organs, helping the muscles contract and relax. TestoPrime helps to enhance stamina and endurance by up to 92.2%.
⇒ Visit the Official Website of TestoPrime for the Best Deals
TestoPrime is made from naturally sourced ingredients in GMP and FDA-approved facilities. The supplement is also GMO- free, vegan, and free from soy, additives, and dyes.
Its manufacturers claim that the product is safe and has no side effects, but not all body types react in the same way.
Although Testoprime is made from naturally sourced ingredients, it’s worth noting that some individuals may be allergic to some of the ingredients.
Be careful to read the manufacturer’s label for the ingredients list to check whether you might be allergic to any of them. Consult your doctor if you suffer from any food allergies before taking them.
TestoPrime advises its users to take four capsules daily for maximum benefits. It’s advisable to stick within the recommended dose even though you do not experience the services to avoid overdosing.
It’s natural for a man to experience a low level of testosterone from the age of 30, which can affect his quality of life in a significant way. TestoPrime has stepped in to fill the gap by formulating a testosterone supplement made from natural ingredients to allow men to retain the most out of their prime years.
A man in the 30-40 age range is tasked with most of life’s responsibilities, such as raising a family and investing for their future. A lot goes on during this phase of life, not forgetting that testosterone levels get lower each passing year. Men in this age gap are likely to undergo stress and may be vulnerable to unhealthy habits to cope with stress.
You may slowly start losing your old self and physique and feel irritable and lethargic at all times. TestoPrime helps you reclaim your old self by reversing the effects of low t-levels. You do not need to endure painful injections, not forgetting the hefty consultation fees that come with every doctor’s visit.
If you find yourself constantly reaching deadlines late due to a lack of focus on work and tired of trying different testosterone boosters then, TestoPrime may be beneficial for you. Losing opportunities such as a promotion or losing a job because you are not able to remain focused is not worth it, consider TestoPrime and overcome these issues.
You may not notice when your testosterone levels get lower, but if you are suffering from chronic severe fatigue, TestoPrime will assist you with that. By taking the supplement for a few weeks, you will experience renewed energy levels, pushing you beyond your limits.
Low sexual stamina can bring about disputes in relationships and may lead to broken marriages. Although it’s normal to lose interest in sex from time, it may be of concern if it happens for a long time.
If your sexual performance is not as it used to be or does not match up to your partner’s desires, a TestoPrime pack may be the solution for you.  Low testosterone levels are one of the major causes of decreased libido. According to the TestoPrime review, it can prevent it by stimulating your body to produce enough testosterone to improve the quality of your sex life.
Generally, every man desires to be productive at work and spend quality time with his family. Low testosterone levels may affect this desire by causing severe fatigue, irritability, and difficulty in focusing on work. Low testosterone levels may also decrease a man’s libido and affect sex drive in life as well.
Testo Prime is recommended for any man who seeks to receive the best of his youthful years and enjoy his energetic and vital self without the excessive expenses in injections or sweating himself out in the gym.
⇒ Visit the Official Website of TestoPrime for the Best Discount
Although Testo Prime is made from naturally sourced, GMO, Soy-free, and vegan, we must appreciate that it may not be suitable for everyone.
Some of the people who should avoid it are:
You might be experiencing bouts of fatigue and difficulty in focusing, and it may be time for you to start enjoying the benefits of Testo Prime.
Before you can begin, consult your doctor if you suffer from other medical conditions or are taking other medication. Be sure to read the manufacturer’s label for the list of ingredients to ensure that you are not allergic to any of them.
Testo Prime is meant to be used daily for better results, and the manufacturers recommend four capsules to be taken every morning before breakfast. To avoid experiencing gastric problems, avoid taking the supplement immediately after taking a meal.
According to customer reviews, it gives positive results a few days into taking Testo Prime, the manufacturers recommend taking the supplements continually for a few months.
⇒ Click Here to get the Latest Deals on TestoPrime
You can buy Testo Prime directly from the official website or Amazon. Buying directly from the official website comes with benefits such as guaranteed quality, free shipping, and a 100% lifetime money-back guarantee.
TestoPrime guarantees that their product is made from naturally sourced ingredients and manufactured in GMP and FDA-approved facilities.
TestoPrime gives you three types of packages to choose from:
The package is the most basic and suitable for beginners. With this package, you get 120 capsules pack, enough to last you a month at $59.99
The package comes with an additional free 120 capsules, enough to last you a month, and therefore, you get enough supply to last for three months with $119.99.
You also get unlimited access to free eBooks and resources on the official website for supplementing your testosterone with diet, healthy exercises to do at home, and foods to eat and avoid for maximum testosterone levels.
The package is considered premium and comes with an additional free 120 capsules with unlimited access to a wealth of resources in eBooks. For this package, you will get enough supply to last you four months at $179.99
All orders come with free shipping and unlimited access to free eBooks with exciting topics such as ways to get the most out of Testo Prime and burn fat and build muscles with exercise.
Should you be unhappy with the results, the company guarantees a 100% hassle-free money-back guarantee with every purchase. Orders from official websites within the USA take 5-7 days, while international orders take 10-15 days for shipping.
⇒ Click Here to Visit the Official Website of TestoPrime
You may not notice lower testosterone levels, but the symptoms may be right in front of your eyes. Low testosterone may affect your intimate life and the quality of your work and relationship with your friends and family.
Testosterone therapy may be costly and can come with numerous side effects without forgetting the uneasiness of explaining yourself to a doctor. TestoPrime provides a safe, affordable and discreet way of enjoying strength, confidence, and vitality that comes with a balanced testosterone level.

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Precision BioSciences Outlines Clinical Development Strategy for In Vivo Gene Editing Pipeline – KULR-TV

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Updated: September 11, 2021 @ 2:59 am

DURHAM, N.C.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Sep 9, 2021–
Precision BioSciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: DTIL), a clinical stage biotechnology company developing allogeneic CAR T and in vivo gene correction therapies with its ARCUS® genome editing platform, today provided strategic business updates on its in vivo gene editing pipeline during the Company’s first gene editing R&D event.
This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210909005318/en/
“Gene editing promises to fundamentally reshape the treatment landscape across numerous therapeutic categories. Today’s in vivo gene editing R&D event showcases the power of our ARCUS genome editing platform – including key demonstrations of capabilities, such as gene insertion and mitochondrial DNA gene editing – which offers distinct advantages in this emerging field,” commented Matt Kane, CEO and co-founder of Precision BioSciences. “We are excited to announce a new collaboration with iECURE which we expect to help us expedite clinical validation of the ARCUS platform for both gene knockout and gene insertion.”
“Today, we are excited to share additional data highlighting the precision and versatility of our ARCUS platform, which is designed to enable safe, specific and efficient gene editing. Since ARCUS can be delivered via AAV or LNP, it has potential utility in treating diseases in the liver as well as many genetic diseases that affect tissues beyond the liver. In addition, the unique enzymology of ARCUS enables it to make complex gene insertion and gene repair edits more efficiently than other editing platforms,” said Derek Jantz, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer and co-founder of Precision. “We believe these unique attributes of ARCUS support its differentiation for in vivo use and its potential to treat a broader range of genetic diseases than other editing technologies. We are very excited about our near-term pipeline and expect ARCUS to deliver on its full promise as we take on more challenging programs.”
Precision expects that three of its preclinical programs will advance to investigational new drug (IND)/clinical trial application (CTA) in the next three years:
Announced today in a separate release, Precision BioSciences has signed a license and collaboration agreement with iECURE, a mutation-agnostic in vivo gene editing company striving to cure devastating diseases with high unmet need, co-founded by James M. Wilson, M.D., Ph.D. Using Precision’s PCSK9-directed ARCUS nuclease, iECURE plans to advance Precision’s PBGENE-PCSK9 candidate into a Phase 1 study in FH and gain access to Precision’s PCSK9-directed ARCUS nuclease to develop four other pre-specified gene insertion therapies for genetic diseases, focusing initially on liver diseases. Precision will retain rights to PBGENE-PCSK9, including for FH and all products developed for genetic indications except those licensed to iECURE. In return for its license grant, Precision will receive an equity stake in iECURE and is eligible to receive milestone and royalty payments on sales of iECURE products developed with ARCUS.
Presentations from Precision’s in vivo Gene Editing R&D event will highlight the Company’s clinical development strategy and updates on the following wholly-owned and partnered preclinical programs using ARCUS-mediated editing:
Featured Preclinical Data
“Research conducted by the Gene Therapy Program has shown ARCUS is capable of precise edits that can be applied broadly across genetic diseases in a mutation-dependent manner,” said Dr. James M. Wilson. “Additionally, as reported today, ARCUS has demonstrated highly efficient gene insertion with a PCSK9-directed nuclease that will be foundational to iECURE in addressing rare genetic diseases, as well as long-term durability reflecting its curative potential with a single administration. Taken together, these findings continue to support what we have learned over years of collaborating with Precision: that the unique properties of ARCUS are differentiated versus other tools in this field.”
New preclinical data to be presented today, and data previously presented at the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Annual Meeting, show that ARCUS efficiently targeted and degraded HBV cccDNA in HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes and reduced expression of HBV S-antigen (HBsAg) by as much as 95%. Similar levels of HBsAg reduction were observed in a newly developed mouse model of HBV infection following administration of ARCUS mRNA using lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery. Precision will pursue clinical development of its PBGENE-HBV candidate using LNP delivery and expects to submit an IND in 2024.
Recent preclinical studies used mitochondrial-targeted ARCUS (mitoARCUS) to selectively eliminate mutant mitochondrial genomes that cause disease in cell and animal models. In work conducted by Precision BioSciences, a hybrid cell model with a mixture of wild-type (healthy) and mutant mitochondrial genomes, a single treatment with mitoARCUS mRNA converted the cells to >99% wild-type. Work led by Carlos T. Moraes, Ph.D., Esther Lichtenstein Professor in Neurology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease and published online in Nature Communications on May 28, 2021, found that mitoARCUS delivered by AAV effectively targeted and depleted mutant mitochondrial genomes in multiple tissues. No editing of potential nuclear off-target sites could be detected, and liver and skeletal muscle showed robust elimination of mutant mtDNA with concomitant restoration of markers of mitochondrial function.
Data will be presented on the clinical nuclease which is expected to be delivered by AAVrh79 in a Phase 1 clinical study to be conducted by iECURE.
NHP data supporting this approach has shown, on average, a 98.0% reduction in HAO1 mRNA and a 97.9% reduction in the encoded protein after a single administration of an AAV vector encoding ARCUS. Compared to published results with siRNAs targeting HAO1, Precision’s approach appeared to provide an improved metabolic profile with the potential for long-term benefit from a single dose. Precision has initiated IND-enabling activities and expects to submit an IND application for this program in 2023 using LNP delivery.
In November 2020, Precision and Lilly announced an exclusive license agreement to utilize ARCUS genome editing for the research and development of up to six potential in vivo targets for genetic disorders. The collaboration initially included three gene targets, with the lead program targeting the dystrophin gene responsible for DMD ( PBGENE-DMD ). In addition, Precision will use ARCUS for one liver-directed target ( PBGENE-LLY2 ) and one CNS-directed target ( PBGENE-LLY3 ).
Dr. Jantz continued, “The versatility of our platform offers us the optionality to pursue numerous therapeutic applications through strategic partnerships, enabling us to capture more of the value of the ARCUS technology and accelerate key programs. For example, in addition to rapidly advancing PBGENE-PCSK9 to the clinic, iECURE will provide critical validation of ARCUS’ gene-insertion capabilities. Lilly will help us research ARCUS-mediated editing in muscle and CNS. Even as we aggressively invest in wholly-owned programs, we will continue to leverage collaborations that enable us to explore novel applications of ARCUS and reach patients quicker.”
The Company’s balance of cash and cash equivalents is approximately $167 million as of August 31, 2021. The Company continues to expect that existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund planned operations into 2023.
Call and Webcast Information
Precision’s gene editing R&D event is being held today, September 9, 2021, at 8:00 a.m. ET. The dial-in conference call numbers for domestic and international callers are (866) 970-2058 and (873) 415-0216, respectively. The conference ID number for the call is 6376435. Participants may also access the live webcast, including slides, available in the Investors and Media section under Events and Presentations. An archived replay of the webcast will be available on Precision’s website for one year following the presentation.
About ARCUS
ARCUS ® is a proprietary genome editing technology discovered and developed by scientists at Precision BioSciences. It uses sequence-specific DNA-cutting enzymes, or nucleases, that are designed to either insert (knock in), remove (knockout), or repair DNA of living cells and organisms. ARCUS is based on a naturally occurring genome editing enzyme, I-CreI, that evolved in the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to make highly specific cuts in cellular DNA. Precision’s platform and products are protected by a comprehensive portfolio including more than 80 patents to date.
About Precision BioSciences, Inc.
Precision BioSciences, Inc. is a clinical stage biotechnology company dedicated to improving life (DTIL) with its novel and proprietary ARCUS® genome editing platform. ARCUS is a highly specific and versatile genome editing platform that was designed with therapeutic safety, delivery, and control in mind. Using ARCUS, the Company’s pipeline consists of multiple “off-the-shelf” CAR T immunotherapy clinical candidates and several in vivo gene correction therapy candidates to cure genetic and infectious diseases where no adequate treatments exist. For more information about Precision BioSciences, please visit www.precisionbiosciences.com.
Forward-Looking Statements
This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements contained in this press release that do not relate to matters of historical fact should be considered forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements regarding the further development and potential of our ARCUS platform, the clinical development and timeline of PBGENE-PCSK9, PBGENE-PH1 and PBGENEHBV, our agreement with iECURE and the potential clinical development and benefits thereunder, our agreement with Lilly and the potential clinical development and benefits thereunder, and our expected use of cash and cash equivalents. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “expect,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate,” “target,” “mission,” “goal,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “target,” “potential,” “project,” “predict,” “contemplate,” “potential,” or the negative thereof and similar words and expressions.
Forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to us. Such statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to various important factors, including, but not limited to: our ability to become profitable; our ability to procure sufficient funding and requirements under our current debt instruments and effects of restrictions thereunder; risks associated with raising additional capital; our operating expenses and our ability to predict what those expenses will be; our limited operating history; the success of our programs and product candidates in which we expend our resources; our limited ability or inability to assess the safety and efficacy of our product candidates; our dependence on our ARCUS technology; the initiation, cost, timing, progress, achievement of milestones and results of research and development activities, preclinical or greenhouse studies and clinical or field trials; public perception about genome editing technology and its applications; competition in the genome editing, biopharmaceutical, biotechnology and agricultural biotechnology fields; our or our collaborators’ ability to identify, develop and commercialize product candidates; pending and potential liability lawsuits and penalties against us or our collaborators related to our technology and our product candidates; the U.S. and foreign regulatory landscape applicable to our and our collaborators’ development of product candidates; our or our collaborators’ ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate; our or our collaborators’ ability to advance product candidates into, and successfully design, implement and complete, clinical or field trials; potential manufacturing problems associated with the development or commercialization of any of our product candidates; our ability to obtain an adequate supply of T cells from qualified donors; our ability to achieve our anticipated operating efficiencies at our manufacturing facility; delays or difficulties in our and our collaborators’ ability to enroll patients; changes in interim “top-line” and initial data that we announce or publish; if our product candidates do not work as intended or cause undesirable side effects; risks associated with applicable healthcare, data protection, privacy and security regulations and our compliance therewith; the rate and degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates; the success of our existing collaboration agreements, and our ability to enter into new collaboration arrangements; our current and future relationships with and reliance on third parties including suppliers and manufacturers; our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our technology and any of our product candidates; potential litigation relating to infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property rights; our ability to effectively manage the growth of our operations; our ability to attract, retain, and motivate key executives and personnel; market and economic conditions; effects of system failures and security breaches; effects of natural and manmade disasters, public health emergencies and other natural catastrophic events effects of the outbreak of COVID-19, or any pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease; insurance expenses and exposure to uninsured liabilities; effects of tax rules; risks related to ownership of our common stock and other important factors discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021, as any such factors may be updated from time to time in our other filings with the SEC, which are accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and the Investors & Media page of our website at investor.precisionbiosciences.com.
All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this press release and, except as required by applicable law, we have no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.
View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210909005318/en/
CONTACT: Investor Contact:
Alex Kelly
Chief Financial Officer
[email protected] Contact:
Maurissa Messier
Senior Director, Corporate Communications
[email protected]
KEYWORD: NORTH CAROLINA UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA
INDUSTRY KEYWORD: HEALTH GENETICS RESEARCH PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE BIOTECHNOLOGY
SOURCE: Precision BioSciences, Inc.
Copyright Business Wire 2021.
PUB: 09/09/2021 07:01 AM/DISC: 09/09/2021 07:01 AM
http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210909005318/en
Copyright Business Wire 2021.
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Economic Comparison of Treatment Strategies with Anakinra | OARRR – Dove Medical Press

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Back to Journals » Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews » Volume 13
An Economic Comparison of Treatment Strategies with Anakinra in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA)
Authors Bullement A, Knowles ES, Langenfeld M, Diogo GR, Nazir J, Eriksson D
Received 30 June 2021
Accepted for publication 13 August 2021
Published 10 September 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 257—266
DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OARRR.S325400
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Chuan-Ju Liu
Ash Bullement,1 Emma S Knowles,1 Merel Langenfeld,2 Gil Reynolds Diogo,3 Jameel Nazir,4 Daniel Eriksson4

1Delta Hat, Nottingham, UK; 2Sobi, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Belgium; 3Sobi, Cambridge, UK; 4Sobi, Stockholm, Sweden

Correspondence: Daniel Eriksson Email [email protected]

Introduction: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a rare, complex autoinflammatory disease with substantial morbidity, often characterized by fever, rash, and muscle pain, amongst other symptoms. Biologic agents, such as anakinra, have been successfully used to treat patients internationally, but their usage in some regions is limited to patients that have failed to achieve clinically inactive disease with corticosteroids and conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs). Use of anakinra early in the disease course leads to better clinical outcomes; however, longer-term costs for this treatment strategy have not been established. This study compares the economic implications of first-line versus later-line availability of anakinra for patients with sJIA.
Methods: Data for patients treated with first-line anakinra were identified from a single-center, prospective study and compared to a combination of published trial and economic evaluation information to facilitate a comparison to later-line anakinra (ie, following corticosteroids + csDMARDs). Costs were estimated for product acquisition and medical resource utilization (MRU), including planned outpatient visits and unplanned hospital admissions. Total costs over a 5-year horizon were compared.
Results: Total 5-year product acquisition cost for the first-line anakinra strategy was € 24,021, and for later-line anakinra was € 20,471. The corresponding MRU costs were € 19,197 (first-line) versus € 25,425 (later-line). Overall 5-year costs (product acquisition and MRU) were lower for the first-line strategy (€ 43,218 versus € 45,896).
Conclusion: The use of anakinra for patients with sJIA in the first-line setting is efficacious to induce and sustain inactive disease, and the findings of this study show that this treatment strategy leads to cost savings through reduced medical expenditure.

Keywords: Still’s disease, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, anakinra, economic comparison, treatment strategies, first line

Anakinra, a treatment for patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), has been used in patients with sJIA for over a decade. Different regions treat with anakinra at different stages in the treatment pathway. In some regions, anakinra is used as a first-line treatment option, whereas in others, its use is reserved for patients who fail to respond to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), or, in other words, “later-line” use of anakinra. This study presents the first economic comparison of different treatment strategies in sJIA. We identified data from a range of different sources and estimated the costs of total drug and medical resource use associated with each alternative treatment regimen. We then compared the total costs accrued over a five-year period. The results of our analysis show first-line anakinra treatment is associated with cost savings versus later-line use, when considered in the context of the full cost implications of patient management.
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a rare, complex autoinflammatory disease, with an incidence of 0.5–0.9 per 100,000 children.1–4 It is associated with substantial morbidity, and is usually characterized by spiking fever, rash, muscle pain, arthritic symptoms, in addition to liver and spleen enlargement.5–7 With an average age of diagnosis between 3 and 5 years, children with sJIA have reduced quality of life, caused by impaired physical and social functioning, which is especially detrimental in developing years.8,9
While sJIA is often considered a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), its systemic nature differentiates it from other, more common rheumatic diseases in several aspects. It is understood to be a polygenic autoinflammatory disease characterized by an excessive activation of the innate immune system and secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1), -6, and -18. It is therefore different to other forms of JIA that are considered to be autoimmune where the pathology is predominantly driven by the adaptive immune system.10 sJIA is also described as the most severe and potentially life-threatening disease in the group of JIA.10 More recently, sJIA and adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) have been described as the same disease entity with different ages of onset.11
Owing to its systemic nature, sJIA is one of very few rheumatic diseases associated with the development of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) – a potentially-fatal complication, recognized as the most frequent life-threatening complication of Still’s disease.12,13 Therefore, in addition to substantial morbidity, sub-optimal management of sJIA is associated with an increased risk of mortality.
Traditionally, the management of sJIA was concerned primarily with reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with the disease (including issues related to long-term steroid use, and the requirement for articular surgery), as opposed to achieving a state of clinically-inactive disease (CID, or “remission” – that is, an absence of disease-related symptoms and normalization of laboratory markers). This was a direct consequence of the lack of efficacious treatments that had been specifically studied within sJIA populations, and so clinical practice historically comprised the use of unlicensed treatments that had been studied in other rheumatic diseases. These unlicensed treatment options for sJIA include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and conventional-synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs). Moreover, the only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of methotrexate (csDMARD) in patients with sJIA did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the systemic features of the disease.14
While traditional therapies were able to improve symptoms, their mechanistic properties did not allow for patients to achieve a state of CID. Following increased understanding of the role of IL-1/IL-6 in sJIA, biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) were studied in sJIA populations in a number of clinician-led studies.14–17 Anakinra (Kineret®, Sobi), an IL-1 receptor antagonist, has been used to treat patients with sJIA for over a decade across Europe,18 and was licensed for the treatment of Still’s disease (including sJIA) in April 2018.19,20 With the availability of bDMARDs targeting IL-1/IL-6, treatment goals shifted from management of symptoms to achieving CID.
Clinical studies have shown that it is possible to achieve CID with bDMARDs, though outcomes are particularly impressive for patients treated with anakinra shortly after diagnosis.21 Cytokine blockade early in the course of Still’s disease may allow patients to achieve remission before the development of chronic, destructive, and often therapy‐resistant arthritis.20–25
A number of clinical guidelines have been updated to reflect the expected benefits associated with earlier use of bDMARDs, acknowledging more recent clinical studies.11,26,27 Cohorts of sJIA patients in the Netherlands and Italy have been treated with first-line anakinra, and a majority of patients were shown to achieve CID, many of whom were able to discontinue therapy in the longer term.21,25,28,29 Earlier use of anakinra has been shown to be associated with clinical benefits; however, it is important to note that this strategy may have an impact on the overall cost of managing patients. To establish its cost-effectiveness, a comparison of hypothetical treatment pathways (ie, use of anakinra early versus later in the treatment pathway) is required.
To our knowledge, no comparison of treatment strategies in sJIA from an economic perspective have been previously conducted. This study aimed to formally compare alternative treatment strategies with anakinra (where it is available in a first-line versus later line setting) in the management of sJIA to illustrate the differences in expected costs.
This study considers a comparison of two treatment strategies:

  1. First-line anakinra: This strategy is concerned with the use of anakinra as soon as possible after diagnosis, theoretically prior to the use of any active treatment for sJIA (including corticosteroids). This strategy is aligned with the latest Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) treatment guidelines,11 the Dutch Pediatrics Association guidelines (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Kindergeneeskunde, NVK),26 and a number of recent studies.21,25,28,29
  2. Later-line anakinra: This strategy involves the use of anakinra after the use of NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and at least one csDMARD (such as methotrexate). Use of anakinra in this setting is aligned with the use of anakinra in earlier published studies (such as ANAJIS15) and is representative of current practice in the UK (per NICE TA238 and TA685 guidance, and a National Health Service clinical commissioning policy).30–32

Most countries treat sJIA patients based on a national policy (including the UK and the Netherlands).26,30,31 Therefore, it is unlikely that a head-to-head comparison of alternative treatment strategies in the same country would be possible (eg, comparing strategies where anakinra is available in the first-line setting, versus only being available in a later-line setting). Accordingly, data to inform both treatment strategies were sought from the literature, with the expectation that supporting studies are likely to have been conducted in different geographies. Where literature was unavailable, information from published reports (eg, NICE guidance) were considered, else assumptions were made where necessary (which are described where applicable throughout).
For patients treated using a first-line anakinra strategy, data regarding the duration of treatment and proportion of patients that achieve CID were taken from ter Haar et al.21 This study reports on a population of n=42 patients with sJIA treated with anakinra monotherapy according to a treat-to-target strategy (before the use of corticosteroids), and followed for a median of 5.8 years.21 At 1 year, 76% of patients (30/42) had CID and 52% (22/42) had CID off medication.21 For those that were followed up to 5 years, 96% (24/25) had CID, and 72% (18/25) had CID off medication.21
In contrast to a first-line treatment strategy, there is no equivalent, comprehensive study available to consider the costs and outcomes for a later-line anakinra treatment strategy. However, tocilizumab (RoActemra®, Roche, an IL-6 inhibitor) was previously assessed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in this setting (TA238), which is broadly aligned with the use of anakinra for sJIA in a later-line setting.30 Therefore, data and assumptions used to inform NICE TA238 were used to produce estimated costs for the later-line anakinra setting, supported with additional information from the literature where needed.
Patients managed with a later-line anakinra strategy were assumed to be treated with NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and a csDMARD (methotrexate) prior to the initiation of bDMARD therapy. Approximately a quarter of patients (25.5%) were assumed to have monocyclic disease course,33 for which it was assumed possible for patients to achieve CID prior to the initiation of bDMARDs. The remaining patients were assumed to have chronic disease course. For NSAIDs + corticosteroids, it was assumed that approximately 30% of monocyclic patients would achieve remission within 6 weeks, and for methotrexate, 20% would achieve remission within 24 weeks (based on the Nordström et al study in AOSD, where it was assumed all patients that achieved “remission” had monocyclic disease course17).
Approximately 50% of patients (with either monocyclic or chronic disease course) were assumed to achieve CID with the first bDMARD used based on the anakinra arm of the Nordström et al. study.17 In the base-case analysis, it was assumed all patients would currently receive tocilizumab as the first choice of biologic therapy after csDMARDs (based on its availability as a licensed treatment option for sJIA since August 2011). After failure on tocilizumab, patients would switch to anakinra. Given the lack of head-to-head comparisons between bDMARDs in sJIA patients, both products were assumed to have the same efficacy.
Discontinuation rates were calibrated based on the probabilities of achieving CID, background mortality, and the expectation that nearly all patients will have discontinued NSAIDs + corticosteroids and methotrexate after 6 and 16 weeks, respectively. To do this, a probability of discontinuation per week was estimated assuming 95% would discontinue in these time periods. For bDMARDs, data from NICE TA238 (tocilizumab for sJIA) were taken, in which 12.6% of patients were assumed to discontinue bDMARD treatment per year.30 It was also assumed that some patients would continue treatment with bDMARDs with CID. In the base-case analysis, this was assumed to be 50%.
A micro-costing analysis was undertaken to estimate the total costs related to product acquisition and medical resource use (MRU). Product acquisition costs were based on estimated durations of treatment from ter Haar et al (first-line) and TA238 (later-line).21,30 Unit costs were taken from Dutch reference cost sources.34
MRU was assumed to be related to whether or not patients still had CID. In the base-case analysis, four cost items were considered: outpatient rheumatology appointments, outpatient hematology appointments, general practitioner (GP) visits, and unplanned hospitalizations. Resource use frequencies were sourced from NICE TA238, with a revision to the expected number of outpatient rheumatology appointments per year to align with approximately one appointment per month.30 A table of parameters included in the analysis is provided in Table 1.

Table 1 Economic Analysis Input Parameters

Table 1 Economic Analysis Input Parameters
The analysis takes the hypothetical perspective of a European cohort of patients, given that no single location is expected to consider a blend of both treatment strategies. Drug and MRU costs are presented in Euros over a 5-year horizon, in line with standard budget impact analysis convention, which are then combined to calculate the overall 5-year costs associated with each treatment strategy. Sensitivity analyses including additional test costs, costs associated with MAS and long-term complications of treatment were considered to explore key areas of uncertainty.
The results of the base-case analysis show that the total 5-year drug costs for the first-line anakinra strategy were €24,021, versus €20,471 for later-line anakinra; and the corresponding MRU costs were €19,197 (first-line) versus €25,425 (later-line) (Figure 1). Therefore, the overall 5-year costs (drug acquisition and MRU) were lower for the first-line strategy (€43,218 versus €45,896), demonstrating that first-line anakinra is cost saving (-€2,677) relative to a later-line strategy. In other words, while first-line anakinra was associated with increased spend related to drug acquisition, it led to cost savings associated with reduced medical resource use expenditure including, for example, a reduction in hospital stays.

Figure 1 Base-case analysis results.

Figure 1 Base-case analysis results.
A number of sensitivity analyses were conducted to further explore the likely differences in the costs associated with each treatment strategy.
The MRU items included in the base-case analysis were selected on the basis of these costs representing the majority of direct healthcare costs incurred. However, additional costs may be incurred in a real-world setting. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to include the costs of C-reactive protein and creatinine clearance tests as well as public transport for outpatient consultations. By including both of these transport-related additional costs, the savings associated with first-line anakinra use increased further to –€2714.
Patients with active disease are subject to a risk of developing MAS, yet these costs were not captured in the base-case analysis. To explore the impact of including MAS-related costs in the analysis, we considered a sensitivity analysis wherein patients with active disease had an average of 0.0525 MAS events per year (based on a study by Grom et al36). The cost of resolving MAS was assumed to be equivalent to a 14-day stay in intensive care, including diagnostics and medication. Including MAS-related costs, the base-case cost savings increased to –€3225.
It is also understood that patients who receive prolonged treatment with corticosteroids and/or csDMARDs (such as methotrexate) may develop long-term complications related to treatment.37 In a sensitivity analysis, we considered an additional cost of a hospitalization each year for 18% of patients (ie, the difference in patients not in remission at 5 years, see Table 1) treated with a later-line strategy after 5 years for an additional 5 years, as a crude exploration of the potential impact of including longer-term complications on results. By including this cost, the cost savings increased to –€3249.
This study demonstrates the economic implications of alternative treatment strategies (first-line versus later-line) with anakinra (in other words, either used in the first-line setting, or in a refractory setting after failure to achieve CID with NSAID, corticosteroid, and csDMARD treatment [eg, methotrexate]). The results of the analysis demonstrate that first-line anakinra is cost-saving relative to later-line use, which, when considered in conjunction with the improved clinical outcomes, gives further justification for the use of anakinra earlier in the course of sJIA.
The conclusion reached by the analysis presented may be surprising when considering the costs of biologic therapies in other rheumatic diseases. However, it is important to acknowledge that anakinra was first granted a marketing authorization in March 2002 (for its use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis), and has been used in clinical practice in the management of Still’s disease for over a decade.20 As such, the weekly cost of anakinra (€225, based on Dutch reference costs, last updated June 2020) is relatively low compared with other, more recent bDMARDs, such as canakinumab (Ilaris®, Novartis), which has an equivalent weekly cost of approximately €2750 (assuming one vial is used every 4 weeks, also last updated June 2020).
The clinical evidence in support of using anakinra earlier in the disease course is increasing over time. The SHARE guidelines advocate the use of anakinra as early as possible in sJIA to capitalize on the potential benefits of early IL-1 inhibition.11 A recent study by Pardeo et al also demonstrated the probability of achieving CID with anakinra based on the disease duration from onset to start of anakinra – 91.9% of patients that started anakinra within 3 months of disease onset achieved CID off corticosteroids, versus 36.8% who started after 3 months of disease onset.25 Accordingly, our study provides a timely assessment of the economic implications of earlier versus later use of anakinra.
In addition to anakinra, two other bDMARDs are licensed for the treatment of sJIA: tocilizumab (an IL-6 inhibitor) and canakinumab (an IL-1β inhibitor). However, unlike anakinra, both of these bDMARDs are only licensed for use after previous therapy with NSAIDs and corticosteroids, and tocilizumab is not licensed for the treatment of AOSD. Anakinra may be used within its licensed indication in patients with active systemic features of moderate to high disease activity without prior use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids. This distinction in the marketing authorization for bDMARDs is especially important in consideration of the emerging evidence for the role of targeted therapies in Still’s disease, where anakinra can be started as soon as practically possible following diagnosis.
Economic analyses for sJIA treatments are limited in number, which is unsurprising given the rarity of sJIA. Our analysis makes use of some information reported in NICE TA238 (tocilizumab in sJIA).30 In addition to the previous NICE assessment of tocilizumab, Kittiratchakool et al recently undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis of tocilizumab in refractory sJIA.38 This analysis only considers the potential use of tocilizumab in a relapsed setting, due to its availability in Thailand specifically in this setting. Conversely, our comparison considers the use of bDMARD therapy either in a refractory setting (ie, after NSAID, corticosteroid, and csDMARD treatment) or in a first-line setting – a comparison that (to our knowledge) has not been previously attempted.
We considered a synthesis of available information to compare the alternative treatment strategies. In doing so, we aimed to use the best available evidence to explore the differences in costs for each strategy, allowing for sensitivity analyses to be conducted concerning the key input parameters and associated assumptions. The ability to explore a range of sensitivity analyses for key settings and assumptions is an important advantage of our analytical approach, given that data available to quantify specific assumptions are either limited or in some cases not available (for example, the proportion of patients that achieve sustained CID with csDMARDs in an sJIA population).
Key uncertainties relating to lack of comparative data may be resolved with further evidence collection, though will unavoidably still be subject to various caveats related to differences in practices by geography and difficulties in enrolling patients within trials of treatments that are already routinely available. In particular, the first-line anakinra strategy considered in our economic analysis is based on data from a single-center study by ter Haar et al, though findings could have been different had the study been repeated in other settings or potentially within the context of a multi-center study. Therefore, while our study makes use of several assumptions to populate these missing data, further research and data collection are required to obtain a more robust estimate of the true costs associated with the management of sJIA.
In addition to the limited data available to inform our economic analysis, it is important to acknowledge that sJIA is a heterogeneous disease, and response to treatment may differ based on various patient characteristics.24,39,40 These include time since diagnosis, disease subtype or severity, and treatment history.24,39–43 Should additional data become available in the future, consideration of how outcomes compare across different patient subpopulations may be of interest from both a clinical and economic perspective.
The full benefits of first-line anakinra are not fully captured within our analysis, mainly due to the limitations of currently-available evidence. Benefits not captured within the main analysis include a reduced risk of developing MAS, the avoidance of long-run consequences relating to corticosteroid and/or csDMARD exposure, and productivity gains resulting from patients achieving CID. While we attempted to address these in part through sensitivity analysis, these potential benefits should also be considered when interpreting the results of our analysis. The findings presented within this study may be considered a conservative estimate of the potential cost savings associated with first-line anakinra.
To our knowledge, this study presents the first economic comparison of treatment strategies in sJIA, based on current treatment pathways across Europe. There have been no published studies of medical management costs in Still’s disease, based on whether patients have achieved CID and/or which treatment(s) they are currently managed with. The findings of the economic comparison illustrate the value of first-line anakinra in sJIA, when considered in the context of the full costs of patient management.
AOSD, Adult-onset Still’s disease; bDMARD, Biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; CAD, Clinically-active disease; CID, Clinically-inactive disease; csDMARD, Conventional-synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; GP, General practitioner; IL-1/IL-6, Interleukin-1/-6; JIA, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; MAS, Macrophage activation syndrome; MRU, Medical resource use; NICE, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; NSAID, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NVK, Nederlandse Vereniging voor Kindergeneeskunde [Dutch Pediatrics Association]; SHARE, Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe; sJIA, Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
The authors thank a number of practicing clinicians who provided supporting information and opinion referred to within this study. The authors also wish to thank Annelies van Leeuwen-Gorter for her scientific input. Early findings reported in this paper were presented at the Virtual ISPOR Europe 2020 conference as a poster presentation. The poster’s abstract was published in volume 23, supplement 2 of the Value in Health journal, available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2020.08.803
This study was funded by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (publ), Stockholm, Sweden. Sobi is the marketing authorization holder for anakinra (Kineret®).
ML, GRD, JN, and DE are employees of Sobi. AB and EK are employees of Delta Hat Limited, which received funding from Sobi to carry out the economic analysis described here within. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.
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40. Giancane G, Minoia F, Davì S, Bracciolini G, Consolaro A, Ravelli A. IL-1 inhibition in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:467. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00467
41. Vastert SJ, Jamilloux Y, Quartier P, et al. Anakinra in children and adults with Still’s disease. Rheumatology. 2019;58(Supplement_6):vi9–22. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kez350
42. Nigrovic PA, Mannion M, Prince FH, et al. Anakinra as first-line disease-modifying therapy in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: report of forty-six patients from an international multicenter series. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(2):545–555. doi:10.1002/art.30128
43. Woerner A, Uettwiller F, Melki I, et al. Biological treatment in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: achievement of inactive disease or clinical remission on a first, second or third biological agent. RMD Open. 2015;1(1):e000036. doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2014-000036
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Electromyostimulation Increased Strength, Endurance in Parkinson's Patients – Parkinson's News Today


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by Steve Bryson PhD | May 27, 2021
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Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) to trigger muscle contractions, improved upper and lower body strength, endurance, and hand-eye coordination in a small group of people with early Parkinson’s disease who did not engage in regular exercise programs.
The study with that finding, “A Single Session of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Increases Muscle Strength, Endurance and proNGF in Early Parkinson Patients,” was published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive loss of coordination and movement due to the death of nerve cells in the brain that play a role in muscle movement. Primary motor impairments include posture and walking instability, difficultly in starting body movements, and slowness in maintaining activity. 
Exercise programs are recommended for people with Parkinson’s to help maintain fitness and mental well-being. However, due to physical and mental limitations, many tend to lead a sedentary lifestyle. That’s why it is necessary to find types of physical activity more suitable for people with the condition. 
WB-EMS, also called electrical muscle stimulation, is the activation of muscle contractions using electrical impulses. EMS has been used as a strength training tool for athletes and has been suggested as a rehabilitation strategy for partially or totally immobilized patients.
WB-EMS induces a global-body electrical muscle stimulation, activating up to eight to 10 different muscle groups at the same time. Furthermore, exercise alongside WB-EMS has been shown to affect blood proteins such as the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein important in promoting the survival of nerve cells affected in Parkinson’s. 
Researchers based at the University of Molise in Italy designed a study to test the effects of WB-EMS and exercise on the physical performance and blood levels of neurotrophic factors in a small group of Parkinson’s patients.
“WB-EMS has not previously been applied to an exercise program for PD patients,” the team wrote. “The initiative to develop WB-EMS training protocols was motivated by the awareness that Parkinson’s patients are unable or unwilling to perform traditional exercise programs.”
The study included six men and four women, with a mean age of 72.6 years. Participants had a diagnosis of Parkinson’s in the early stages from 1 (mild) to 3 (moderate) as assessed by the Hoehn and Yahr scale, and did not attend physical exercise programs.
The intervention first included WB-EMS; then, it was repeated with no WB-EMS as a control condition after four weeks. In both scenarios, after a warm-up, participants underwent a 20-minute exercise session guided by a certified instructor, which consisted of five voluntary strength exercises: half squat, full squat, bent over, core rotation, and crunch. 
Before the WB-EMS, a general level of physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire that recorded activity over the previous week during leisure time, household, and work activities. Tremors were evaluated along with strength exercises, including arm curls with weights, handgrip test, sit-to-stand test for lower limbs, and the soda pop test for manual dexterity. 
Physical assessments and blood tests were conducted before WB-EMS and the no WB-EMS condition, and after both. 
The analysis showed participants were able to perform significantly more repetitions in the sit-to-stand test after WB-EMS, compared to before or after the no WB-EMS condition, assessed four weeks later. 
Similarly, patients performed significantly faster on the soda pop test post-WB-EMS than after no-WB-EMS and before WB-EMS.
In the arm curl assessment, participants could perform significantly more repetitions post-WB-EMS than in the post-no WB-EMS and in the pre-WB-EMS. 
The handgrip test showed patients were stronger after WB-EMS intervention than after the control condition and before WB-EMS. 
There was no impact on the blood levels of growth factors BDNF, FGF21, and mature neuro-growth factor (mNGF). In contrast, significantly higher levels of immature NGF (proNGF) were found 60 minutes after WB-EMS than in the no-WB-EMS condition at the pre-intervention assessment. 
Finally, no differences were seen between the WB-EMS and no WB-EMS conditions in the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), a tool to measure Parkinson’s progression. 
“The results revealed a positive impact of the WB-EMS protocol proposed in this study, on several physical functioning parameters, improving upper and lower limb strength, hand-eye coordination and clinical outcomes associated with WB-EMS-induced variations in serum proNGF levels,” the researchers concluded. 
“WB-EMS application could be an advisable strategy for Parkinson’s patients to increase their adherence to [physcial activity] programs since it is a time-efficient and feasible methodology to improve their physical condition,” they added. 
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Fascinating Facts and Stats About the 2021 World's Strongest Man – BarBend

 
The 2021 World’s Strongest Man made its mark in the history books. It was an iconic contest with many memorable moments — Tom Stoltman becoming the first Scotsman to win the five-day competition (June 15-20), Mark Felix’s gritty day three comeback, 2020 WSM champion Oleksii Novikov failing to make the Finals, and the dramatic Train Pull (err, Train Push) event.
However, before we turn the page, let’s take one more look at some stats from the event that may have flown under the radar. Aside from the crazy weights and the size of the competitors, there are other unique tidbits of information that make this contest even more special. Here are 10 facts that add some perspective to the contest in Sacramento, CA.
The train that was used on the Titan Turntable event weighed 30 metric tons or 66,138 pounds. If that were to be converted into weight plates, it would take 1,469 45-pound plates, a 25, and a 10-pound weight plate to achieve the same weight. 
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the tallest giraffe in the world is in Queensland, Australia. Twelve-year-old Forest the giraffe is 5.7 meters tall (18’8″). When Brian Shaw set the world record in the Keg Toss event by tossing the 33-pound keg 7.75 meters (25’4″) over the bar, it would’ve cleared Forest’s head by over two meters.
Brian Shaw Keg Toss HeightBrian Shaw Keg Toss Height
[Related: The Best Pre-Workout Supplements for Strength, Cardio, Pump, and More]
The 2021 WSM was 55-year-old Mark Felix‘s 16th World’s Strongest Man appearance (2004, 2006-2011, 2013-2021). His first contest was in 2006, where he placed fourth to champion Phil Pfister. Tom Stoltman probably watched that contest as a fan — he was 12 years old at the time. Felix was eliminated in the qualifying stage of the 2021 WSM contest after losing the Stone Off to Tom Stoltman.
Brian Shaw was hoping to be the oldest man to win the World’s Strongest Man title at 39 years, three months old. Žydrūnas Savickas won a WSM at 38 years and eight months old. Ultimately, he was the runner-up. He is actually the second oldest man to finish in second place. Savickas was 39 years and nine months old when he took the silver trophy in 2015. The champion that year? Brian Shaw.
Zavickas and Shaw will face one another in competition again later this year as a part of the 2021 Shaw Classic.
Being big is the name of the game in strongman. The combined weight of the 10 men who competed in the 2021 WSM Finals is 3,579 pounds, about the size of a fully grown male hippopotamus (on average). Brian Shaw was the heaviest man in the Finals at a bodyweight of 405 pounds. The lightest man in the lineup was Eythor Ingolffsson Melsted, who weighed in at 326 pounds.
2021 World's Strongest Men and Hippo2021 World's Strongest Men and Hippo
[Related: What You Need to Know About How to Build Muscle]
According to the World’s Strongest Man website, Tom Stoltman is the only man out of the 10 finalists who is left-handed. Notably, it was the grip strength in his left hand that gave out on him during the Hercules Hold when he finished as the runner-up to WSM champion Oleksii Novikov in 2020. He credits physical therapy and working with a mental coach to help him prepare for the 2021 WSM contest.
Needless to say, it worked. Stoltman smoked the Giant’s Medley, which included a 772-pound strapless frame carry, in a time of 18.36 seconds. And then he went on to become the first Scotsman to win the contest. Before this year, the last southpaw to win the title was Hafthor Björnsson in 2018.
[Related: Tom Stoltman Wins 2021 World’s Strongest Man]
Tom Stoltman also set a record for the largest lead in the Finals after the first two events. He won both the Giants Medley and Titan’s Turntable events to take a seven-point lead (it fell to 5.5 points after three events). Five-time WSM champion Mariusz Pudzianowski holds the record for the biggest lead after three events — seven points in 2003 and 2006.
2020 WSM Oleksii Novikov failed to qualify for the 2021 WSM Finals, which is a rare occurrence. Since WSM implemented the current qualification group system into the contest in 1994, only two defending champions have failed to make the Finals. 
In 1994, defending champion Gary Taylor was eliminated in the first installment of the qualifiers. The second time that a previous year’s winner was ousted before the final was in 1997. Defending champion Magnus ver Magnusson placed third in his heat to Svend Karlsen and Torfi Olafsson. Neither man won the title that year — Finland’s Jouka Ahola claimed it.
[Related: What You Need to Know About How to Increase Strength]
Maxime Boudreault joined champion Tom Stoltman and runner-up Brian Shaw on the podium as the third-place finisher this year. 2021 marked the second year in a row that a man from Canada has placed in the top three of the World’s Strongest Man. JF Caron held the same position in 2020.
Before Caron, there had only been two men from the Great White North to place in the top three of any World’s Strongest Man contest. Canada’s Tom Magee placed second in 1982, and Dominic Filiou placed third in 2005. There has yet to be a Canadian World’s Strongest Man winner.
Notably, Boudreault also set the Canadian log lift record in the Log Lift event when he successfully hoisted 205 kilograms (452 pounds).
The past six years have produced six different champions; Stoltman in 2021, Novikov in 2020, Martins Licis in 2019, Hafthor Björnsson in 2018, Eddie Hall in 2017, and Shaw in 2016. That is the longest streak of different champions since the creation of the contest in 1977.
World's Strongest Man Winners from 2016 to 2021World's Strongest Man Winners from 2016 to 2021
Tom Stoltman is also the fifth consecutive first-time winner, another streak that had never been achieved before in the contest’s 44-year history. 
At the competition of the competition, there were seven different WSM champions on-site at the Old Sacramento Waterfront:
As was also the case with the 2020 WSM contest, the 2021 WSM contest was filmed and set to broadcast on CBS Sports Network in the U.S and Channel 5 in the U.K. The schedule for each broadcast in each country is as follows.
Coverage of the 2021 championship will be broadcast to approximately 70 additional countries and territories starting in December 2021, totaling close to 500 million households:
Note: The U.S. and U.K. dates are locked in, but broadcast information for the other countries is subject to change.
Featured Image Courtesy of World’s Strongest Man

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Nicotinamide Riboside Supplements: Top 11 NAD+ Boosters List | Vashon-Maury Island Beachcomber – Vashon-Maury Island Beachcomber

NAD+ is a coenzyme – found in every living cell, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It transforms all we eat into all we are and do. Just put, cells need energy. NAD+ helps cells build energy. The more NAD+ accessible, the more cells are required, and the better cells can operate. NAD+ supplements supply precursors to your body to make dinucleotide nicotinamide adenine or NAD. It is generally found as a positive ion; hence you will often see NAD as NAD+.
This chemical has an essential role in the ability of your body to produce energy and increase cellular metabolism. NAD+ supplements are pretty popular with those who strive to lengthen their lifetime and improve their living quality at age. We have picked out the top eleven NAD+ supplements for you, especially if you would like to retain more energy as you get older.

About Nicotinamide Riboside

Niagen (Nicotinamide Riboside) is an alternate form of vitamin B3, generally known as niacin. Like other forms of vitamin B3, the body converts nicotinamide riboside into a coenzyme or a helper molecule (NAD+). For several critical cellular activities, NAD+ works as fuel. Examples include converting food to power, repairing damaged DNA, strengthening cell defense mechanisms, and setting your body’s internal clock or circadian rhythm.

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The level of NAD+ decreases typically with aging in your body. Low NAD+ was associated with health concerns such as aging and chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and eyesight loss. Interestingly, animal studies have shown that increasing NAD+ levels can assist in reversing indications of aging.
Nicotinamide riboside supplements, like Niagen, are popular because they appear to increase NAD+ levels exceptionally efficiently. Trace levels of nicotinamide riboside are also present in cow’s milk, yeast, and beer. To sum up, Niagen is an alternate form of vitamin B3. It is advertised as an anti-aging supplement because it increases NAD+ levels in your body, fuel for many major biological activities.

Is It Worth Using NAD+ Supplements?

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NAD+ nicotinamide riboside supplements are particularly effective in boosting NAD+ levels in your blood. One essential element we sought when formulating our rankings was the nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B3 molecule. This molecule has reached its high level of importance because the study demonstrates its potential to enhance NAD+ levels in the body fast and effectively. Researchers from Iowa University presented scientific research showing that nicotinamide riboside leads to considerable increases in NAD+ in mice and humans.
A single dose of Nicotinamide Riboside has increased NAD+ levels by 170 percent over just 12 hours compared to normal levels. The study results also reveal that high amounts of nicotinamide riboside are unnecessary: 100, 300, and 1000 mg doses are equally effective in enhancing NAD+ in the blood. This is good since it implies you don’t lose out when taking a smaller amount of nicotinamide riboside. In comparison to nicotinamide riboside, nicotinamide and nicotinic acid may not be as effective at boosting NAD+. All niacin derivatives and relatives can be challenging to maintain straight because their names are similar. Still, nicotinamide riboside or NR is the most effective of the many NAD+ precursors.
The 2016 research also compares nicotinamide riboside with these two other NAD+ precursors, some of them called Nam and NA, and shows that NR is the best way to enhance the levels of NAD+. Researchers have also seen that Nam and NA appear to be metabolized through metabolic routes other than NR. This is amazing since they are all precursors of the same chemical. However, these findings may suggest that some NAD+ precursors have higher efficiency in specific applications than others. For example, only NR has increased NAD+ in cardiac concentrations than other NAD+ precursors in this study, which has not increased NAD+ in the cardiac tissue.
Supplements from NAD+ could assist increase your metabolism and avoid some of the damaging impacts of obesity. Since NAD+ plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, obesity is a clear prospective application area. The metabolic problems such as type 2 diabetes that can occur from excess body fat are one of the principal unfavorable health consequences of obesity.
Some evidence suggests that supplements that increase NAD+ levels can help protect you against these adverse metabolic effects. One similar paper was published in Cell Metabolism in 2012. Mice given a nicotinamide riboside supplement could withstand the unfavorable metabolism consequences of a high-fat diet. Increasing NAD+ levels in the body could aid with obesity health consequences and adverse health impacts resulting from aging.

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High NAD+ levels in the brain may contribute to protecting you against degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s or dementia. Research in rats repeatedly demonstrates that NAD+ levels in the brain decrease rapidly with aging. A report released in 2013 showed that NAD+ losses go hand in hand with a rise in central nervous system oxidative damage. The researchers theorized that the accumulation of oxidative damage caused by declines in the body’s ability to slow down and prevent oxidation is behind the decrease in cognitive function of the brain with growing ages.
Another investigation on an Alzheimer’s mouse model showed how mitochondria are a hallmark impact on central nervous system degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. The researchers were able to reverse unfavorable changes in mitochondrial function in their mouse model of Alzheimer’s. They utilized NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide, an NAD+ precursor present in NAD+ supplements) to increase NAD+ levels in the mice. Although these researches are still in the early phases, as many of the borders of NAD+ supplementation, these preliminary animal studies are quite promising to help treat or perhaps even prevent or reduce the development of human neurodegenerative illnesses.
More studies, including clinical studies, will be needed to confirm these results, but the initial indicators of animal studies are still quite encouraging. Boosting NAD+ levels can improve your heart function as you get older and prolong your heart health. Your heart tissue is one place in your body with an extraordinarily high mitochondrial concentration and, therefore, a very high requirement for NAD+. Several studies suggest that increasing NAD+ levels can positively impact heart function because heart disease and heart failure are related to lower NAD+ levels. One study, published by Pankaj Chaturvedi and Suresh Tyagi in 2017 in the Journal of Cellular Physiology, cited investigations suggesting NAD+ supplementation can improve the heart function of animal cardiac insufficiency models.
The connection between NAD+ and cardiac health also appears to be linked to cardiac stem cells: your stem cells will also no longer function and perish when you become older. However, NAD+ supplementation can aid in maintaining your muscle stem cells as you grow older, which will improve your cardiac health (your heart being a muscle, of course). The NAD+ animal’s supplement could even reduce damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion, two origins of cardiac damage in heart disease.
Animal study shows that NAD+ may enhance your muscle performance and perhaps lengthen your life. In the publication in 2016 in Science, a prominent newspaper was reporting on a wide variety of research with NAD+ precursors (a fundamental component in many of the top NAD+ supplements) to increase NAD+ levels in aged mice. The researchers demonstrated considerable improvements in muscle function following NAD+ supplementation by conducting extensive tests on the muscular physiology of the old mice both with and without the NAD+ supplement. In addition, the NAD+ mice had significantly longer lifespans than the NAD+ supplement control mice.
Researchers have partly chalked this up to an increase in the protection offered to stem cells: the inevitable decrease of aging has been stabilized in mice with greater NAD+ levels by sustaining the ability of body-self repairment. As more studies come out, we will learn more about whether these effects are for people, but NAD+ supplements, particularly nicotinamide riboside supplements, seem to have a shining future.

Who Should Take NAD+ Supplements?

NAD+ supplements are best suited for older persons who desire to decrease the aging process and molecularly improve their bodily health. Investigators point out that raising NAD+ levels in your body can help protect your brain against degenerative disorders and even suppress some of the detrimental effects of cholesterol.
Due to this type of proof, NAD+ supplements are well-known for older persons, alongside more renowned fish oil, vitamin B12, and eye vitamins. NAD+ supplements operate by giving your body NAD+ synthesis precursors. Most individuals have appropriate NAD+ levels thanks to the systemization pathway involving tryptophan amino acid or niacin B-vitamin. However, some study suggests that raising NAD+ levels across the usual range could contribute to protective effects for older adults.

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The relation between NAD+ and aging is because many of your aging stresses, such as damage to DNA, oxidation, and inflammation, raise the body’s NAD+ requirement. Indeed, one of the postulated mechanisms for extending the life and anti-aging diet techniques such as calorie restriction and intermittent fasting is their potential to change the NAD + metabolism. Mice research suggests that supplements that might enhance NAD+ levels can protect against many of the distinctive health deteriorations of age.
For example, a 2016 Nature Communications study found that mice fed an additional product that enhances NAD+ levels. Even on a high-fat diet, they may fight weight gains, avert hearing loss, prevent peripheral nerve damage from diabetes, and even retain the role of their stem cells as they age. All these studies show that NAD+ is one of the most intriguing supplements for older folks.

Top 11 NAD+ Supplements

Alive By Science

image 1

Alive By Science offers many NAD+ boosters that work differently than any supplement in our list, including unique liposome gel. Alive By Science is well recognized for its NAD+, LIPO Gel Resveratrol, and NMN with LIPO Gel Resveratrol. The gels are sublingual for maximum absorption. Alive By Science also offers powdered NMN and NAD+ supplements that can be applied in a handy capsule to take advantage of NMN and NAD+ supplementation. Alive By Science can have the correct NAD+ boosters for your anti-aging demands with several alternatives to meet all tastes and preferences.

Cymbiotika NMN

image 2

Another popular and well-known NAD+ booster supplement available today is Cymbiotika’s NMN. Cymbiotika NMN supplies nicotinamide mononucleotide to your body (NMN), the direct NAD+ precursor and a key component for enhancing your body’s NAD+ levels. Each Cymbiotika NMN capsule contains NMN and complementary ingredients such as apigenin, green tea extract, resveratrol, and green coffee beans. Cymbiotika NMN can raise NAD+ levels within your body by providing you with antioxidants, polyphenols, minerals, and precursors. Cymbiotika suggests that two capsules be used every day to enhance energy revitalization, guard against aging, and protect healthy DNA, cognitive health, and other effects.

Elysium

image 3

Elysium was one of the NAD+ booster space precursors. The supplement has a proven B-vitamin compound, which Oxford patented for slow brain shrinkage as you age. In one study, the B-vitamin complex in regions linked with learning and memory delayed gray matter degeneration by 86 percent. Elysium contains omega-3 fatty acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidants, with increased bioavailability, besides its unique vitamin complex B. In addition, Elysium allows you to acquire a biological age test kit to test the supplement’s effects. Take Elysium every day, then use the kit before and after the supplement to test your age. Elysium can help you reverse the clock and support anti-aging effects. Elysium offers two primary NAD+ supplements, including long-term brain health (Matter) and basic health (for general anti-aging and DNA health). Elysium is also one of the only NAD+ booster supplements supported by actual human clinical research.

HPN Supplements NAD3 NAD+ Booster

image 4

HPN Supplements provide an NAD+ NAD3 enhancer. Announced as a “youth fountain,” the recipe offers 311 mg of a single formula per serve. During the use of NR or NMN by other NAD+ boosters, HPN supplements have a different approach: a proprietary blend has been established called the NAD3 Patent-pending formula. This recipe contains theacrine, wasabi, and copper nicotinic acid, which can allegedly increase NAD+. By taking NAD3 every day, it is alleged to raise telomerase activity for aging, help cellular inflammation to be reduced, enable NRF2 to detoxify, and boost NAD+ for mitochondrial function.

Life Extension NAD+ Cell Regenerator

image 5

Life Extension tells you what your compliment is supposed to do straight in the name: the supplement is intended to rejuvenate cells by supporting NAD+ production. Life Extension NAD+ Cell Regenerator comprises a 300mg dose of Niagen NR as particular NAD+ boosters described here. Trans-resveratrol has been added to each amount for different effects leading to greater NAD+ levels.
According to life extension, the NAD+ cell regenerator can improve cellular tiredness control and promote mitochondrial health and the young creation of cellular energy, among other impacts.

Liftmode NMN

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image 6

NMN Liftmode contains 10g of mononucleotide nicotinamide in each bottle. Unlike NR, NMN is not a vitamin B3 variation. Instead, it is a synthetically manufactured nucleotide, like NR, associated with anti-aging properties through its effects on NAD+ levels. Each Liftmode NMN jar includes 10 g pure NMN, making it easy to adapt the dose you want. Liftmode’s formula NMN Liftmode supports healthy cellular energy levels, offers strong regeneration effects, sharpens cognitive function in the aging brain, and offers further benefits. In addition, Liftmode uses a transparent plastic jar to maximize purity and power.

Quicksilver Scientific Liposomal NAD+ Gold

image 7

Scientific Quicksilver sells a popular NAD+ booster product called NAD+ Gold. The addition claims to increase NAD and lead to good aging, memory, and vitality. As with the NAD+ as mentioned earlier Alive By Science boosters, NAD+ Gold uses liposome delivery to provide you with enhanced disponibility, resulting in more active chemicals ending up in your bloodstream. Press two pumps in your mouth and hold them for 30 seconds to take NAD+ Gold. Then swallow. Then swallow. The formulae contain NAD+ (including NMN) precursors that help to increase NAD+ levels in the body.

RiboGEN

image 8

RiboGEN is a supplement containing 300 mg NR per serving of nicotinamide riboside (NR). The manufacturers of RiboGEN claim that their formula is the only drug product with the same purity as NR used in medical and clinical investigations.
RiboGEN’s NR works similarly to the NR used in other NAD+ supplements described here. This is a precursor for NAD production and provides your body with the elements it needs to make NAD, which results in higher NAD+ levels. RiboGEN is a nonsensical NR supplement associated with putative NAD+ enhancing effects at 99.5% riboside content and 0.5% NAM. Each bottle contains 300 capsules (300 portions), which makes the price of RiboGEN compared to other supplements on this list.

Science.bio NR Chloride Powder

image 9

Science.bio puts on this list one of the most potent ribosides (NR) nicotinamide supplements. You can mix or put the powder in your capsule as necessary to benefit from the potential NAD+ enhancement—every batch of NR Chloride Powder from Science.Bio is batched and coded with publicly viewable laboratory data to guarantee quality and transparency. To reduce damage, the jar is also protected against UV. That implies you obtain a maximum dosage of nicotinamide riboside – all without the filler elements seen in other NAD+ boosters marketed today online.

Tru Niagen

image 11

Tru Niagen is one of NAD+’s most famous promoters — and for a good reason. The supplement supports cellular energy synthesis and encourages cell repair with 500 mg of Niagen nicotinamide riboside (NR) per capsule. By taking one Tru Niagen capsule daily, you might presumably boost NAD+ by 80%, based on research using 100 mg, 300 mg, and 1000 mg Niagen NR daily. Tru Niagen is available in 300mg and 500mg doses. Many people use Tru Niagen every day to alter cell energy, aging, health, and wellness overall. You may also buy 30 counts, 90 counts, or 180 Tru Niagen count bottles. The more you purchase, the more savings you save. Tru Niagen is one of the few NAD+ boosters on the list, supported by specific scientific data.

Toniq NMN

image 10

Toniq’s NMN could contain some of the better packages on this list. The no-nonsense package is what you would expect when dealing with an NAD+ booster based on a no-nonsense NMN. Each bottle includes 99% pure NMN to enable your body to manufacture more NAD+ precursors. With the larger package of 180 capsules, you can save even more. By taking Toniq NMN daily, you can receive quality nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in every serving, helping you promote NAD+ production in your body.

NAD+ Supplement Dosage

The correct dosage of an NAD+ supplement will depend on your specific NAD+ precursor. Doses of 100 to 300 mg daily appear to be beneficial if you use nicotinamide riboside. NMN research has investigated a dose of 100-500 mg per day for safety purposes alone, not to establish the optimum beneficial dosage level. For the problems mentioned above of flushing, itching, and other adverse effects, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid are limited to fewer than 500 mg a day.

Factors To Consider When Purchasing NAD+ Supplements

Clarity

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Some NAD+ boosters utilize or disguise their ingredient labels with proprietary formulations, making it difficult to check what is inside the solution. We chose NAD+ boosters with transparent and honest labels of components that removed all guessing.

Dosage

The pills with NAD+ boosters may have the proper chemicals but at low doses. After each NAD+ booster was tested, we ensured that adequate amounts of those components were employed.

Reviews

Niagen, Cymbiotika, and Elysium are three of NAD+’s most renowned and recognized booster brands. You have been making high-quality NAD+ booster pills for many years. Some of the leading firms even invested in human clinical studies. We chose companies with an established reputation over those who wanted to make an immediate difference from the NAD+ supplements hype.

Ingredients Used

It’s not an exact science to boost NAD+. Studies demonstrate that turmeric, resveratrol, and other nutrients could raise NAD+ in particular, which is why many of these compounds contain NAD+ boosters. While we did not punish companies without supplementary substances, we considered complementary components in our rankings.

The Components

NR and NMN are the two most confirmed substances to enhance NAD+. All NAD+ enhancers use one of these two substances. Both are precursors of NAD+ synthesis. The higher we classify, the more clinically confirmed substances a NAD + booster is employed.

Cost

Some folks would like to spend 30 dollars on NAD+ boosters. Others might want to spend $200. We provide NAD+ boosters at a range of costs. However, we stressed good value at every price to ensure that your investment was not lost on any of the above-mentioned NAD+ supplements.

Tests And Reports

Some of the top supplements for NAD+ boosters in our list are supported by clinical trials. Companies have been investing in human trials to verify their extra work as stated; the better, the more scientific data to help NAD+.

Impacts Of The Supplement

Some NAD+ boosters misrepresent their advantages, stating that they may reverse your age by 20 years or drop 50 pounds in one month. We were concerned about NAD+ boosters, and we chose companies with more honestly touted advantages.

Do NAD+ Supplements Have Side Effects?

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The adverse effect profile may vary depending on the exact NAD+ supplement you are taking. The most well-known side effects of NAD+ supplements are “flushing,” skin redness, and pinching (typically your face or your fingers), which you feel shortly after the supplement is taken. Flushing is connected with a type of vitamin B3, nicotinic acid, or NA. There is no flushing of other NAD+ precursors. A Slovenian study shows that while human research is lacking for most NAD+ precursors, extrapolating from animal data suggests that they are probably safe at human levels. The only significant exception is high nicotinamide and nicotinic acid dosages. These NAD+ precursors are not meant to be used in very high dosages (more than 500 to 900 mg a day) because they can lead to high levels of liver enzymes, abdominal pain, itchy skin, flushing, and vomiting.

NAD+ Supplements – The Literature Review

According to the NIH (2018), researchers provided a group of mice specifically designed to exhibit human-like age-related memory impairment with an NR supplement. Some mice got NR supplements for three months in their drinking water, whereas others took a placebo. In the NR group, mice experienced reduced DNA damage, greater neuroplasticity, enhanced neuronal production, lower neuron damage, and reduced DNA damage (memory-related hippocampal damage), among other benefits.
According to Carles Canto (2013), NAD+ boosters can offset high-fat diet effects. Mice had a high-fat diet paired with an NR or placebo supplement. Mice using the NR supplement acquired 60% less weight, exhibited higher levels of energy and better oxidative metabolism than the mice on placebos.
Using an NR supplement to boost NAD+ can also aid muscular function and strength. You lose muscular function and strength as you get older. According to Ozge Ozkaya (2016), scientists provided the mouse with an NR supplement or placebo and noticed superior strength and strength improvements than in the placebo group in the NR group.
According to Basil P. Hubbard (2017), many folks also use NAD+ boosters to repair DNA. DNA repair may sound like a broad and poorly defined advantage. However, specific investigations have proven NAD+ boosters’ ability to repair DNA. For instance, in one study, NAD+ supplementing precursors enhanced DNA repair and muscle tissue health improvements in just one week. Researchers could not determine in this study the difference between two-year-old mouse and four-month-old mouse tissues. The NAD+ precursors (such as NR and NMN) could turn the clock back after aging.
Other research has demonstrated that NAD+ boosters prolong longevity through increased SIRT1 activation, a type of protein in sirtuins. For instance, researchers have observed in this study on mice that NR supplementation enhances the lifespan of mice via enhancing mitochondrial activity. You don’t need an NAD+ booster product to increase NAD+ levels. Instead, studies demonstrate that fasting, limiting caloric intake, and other modifications in food and lifestyle can considerably raise NAD+ levels.
According to Yu Wang (2014), researchers found that consuming between 20 and 30% fewer calories than usual is connected with greater NAD+ levels. Similarly, this study revealed that the rapidity and calorie limitation boosted NAD+ levels and elevated SIRT1 activation, leading to an increase in lifespan. For these reasons, many argue that the keto diet and intermittent fasting schemes can increase NAD+.
Although many NAD+ investigations involved mice rather than humans, several human trials have been conducted. For example, researchers showed that NR safely and effectively supplements NAD+ levels in healthy persons in this study. Similarly, a study in Nature Communications found that an NR supplement dramatically increased NAD+ and diphosphate adenine ribose levels (ADPR).

Health Benefits Of NAD+ Supplements

May Lower Heart Disease Risk

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Aging predisposes one to heart disease, the most significant cause of death in the world. It can increase blood vessels, such as your aorta, thickness, rigidity, and flexibility. Such changes can increase your blood pressure and make it more challenging for you to work. In animals, the NAD+ increase contributed to the reverse of age-related artery alterations. In humans, nicotinamide riboside increased NAD+, contributed to aortic rigidity reduction, and systolic blood pressure decreased for people at high blood pressure risk.

Enzymes Can Be Activated To Promote Healthy Aging

Nicotinamide riboside helps to enhance your body’s NAD+ level. Responding to NAD+, specific enzymes can stimulate healthy aging. One group is sirtuins, which seem to improve animals’ lives and overall health. Studies show that sirtuins can repair damaged DNA, increase stress resistance, reduce inflammation and bring additional benefits to healthy aging. Sirtuins are also responsible for the extended lifespan of the restriction of calories. Another group consists of polymerases (ADP-Ribose) (PARPs) that repair damaged DNA. Studies correlate increased PARP activity with reduced damage to DNA and a longer lifetime.

Converted Easily To NAD+

NAD+ is a coenzyme or aid molecule involved in numerous cellular activities. Research demonstrates that NAD+ levels continue to diminish with age while required for overall health. Low NAD+ levels are associated with poor aging and various hazardous disorders. One strategy to enhance NAD+ levels is to use NAD+ precursors—NAD+ building blocks—like riboside nicotinamide. Animal studies indicate that nicotinamide riboside increases NAD+ blood levels by up to 2.7 times. Moreover, your body is more efficiently utilized than other NAD+ precursors.

It May Help Protect Cells Of The Brain

NAD+ serves a vital role in helping your brain cells age well. NAD+ helps govern the development of PGC-1-alpha, a protein that appears to protect cells from oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairments in brain cells. Researchers believe that oxidation and mitochondrial function are associated with age-related brain illnesses like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
Nicotinamide riboside has increased brain NAD+ levels and PGC-1-alpha synthesis by up to 70% and 50%, respectively, in mice with Alzheimer’s disease. By the end of the trial, the mice performed memory-based activities much better. Nicotinamide riboside increased the NAD+ level in a test tube research and improved mitochondrial function significantly in stem cell patients treated with Parkinson’s disease. However, persons with age-related brain diseases increase NAD+ levels. We need more human studies.

May Help In Loss Of Weight

Nicotinamide riboside contributed to the acceleration of mice’s metabolism. However, it is unknown if the effect would be the same in humans and how strong it is.

May Lessen The Risk Of Cancer

The high levels of NAD+ help protect against damage to DNA and oxidative stress associated with cancer development.

It May Help Deal With Jet Lag

NAD+ helps control your body’s internal clock; therefore, taking Ziagen may help treat jet lag or other circadian rhythm disorders by resetting your body’s internal clock.

May Encourage Healthy Muscle Aging

Rising NAD + levels contributed to improving muscular function, strength, and stamina in aged mice.

Natural Alternative Ways Of Improving NAD+ Supplement

There’s good news, however. If you want to remain young and enjoy a long and healthy life, there are ways to improve your body’s NAD levels naturally. The different methods are as follows:

Fasting

Fasting is practiced worldwide in many religions. In addition to its spiritual advantages, fasting turns out to be advantageous to our health. Fasting or lowering your calorie intake is a fantastic way to increase body NAD levels indirectly. Fasting has been demonstrated to raise NAD+ and certain levels; proteins found to halt the aging process. Although quacking can increase NAD+ levels effectively, extreme decreases in calorie consumption or fasting could have a detrimental effect. There are also speculations that intermittent fasting or low-carb ketogenic diets can have comparable favorable benefits.

Dietary Supplements For Nicotinamide Riboside

Nicotinamide Riboside has been found in vitamin B3 recently. No one took care of this molecule until the study showed that our bodies can employ NR to metabolize NAD+! After this finding, there were various NR supplements on the markets. Several studies have indicated that NR supplements help enhance NAD+ levels in the body.

Exercise

Training is one of the easiest and cheapest ways to enhance NAD+ levels. Our bodies need energy from NAD+ as we practice. In essence, exercise causes our bodily muscles, the powerhouses of cells, to make more mitochondria. Increased mitochondria synthesis leads to a natural elevation in body NAD+ levels.

Too Much Sunlight Could Be Harmful!

Research has demonstrated that excessive direct exposure to the sun might deplete the NAD+ body. This is because our body requires NAD+ to repair cells harmed by direct exposure to UV rays from sunlight. If you feel excessive exposure to sunlight is inevitable, you should wear sunblocks, sunglasses, or sunglasses.

Foods That Enhance NAD Levels

Some meals can increase NAD levels in the body. Some of them are:

Dairy Milk

The study has shown that cow’s milk is a good source of Nicotinamide Riboside (RN). A liter of fresh cow’s milk is approximately 3.9μmol NAD+. So you get younger and healthier while you enjoy a refreshing glass of milk!

Fish

Another reason you can enjoy fish here! Some types of fish such as tuna, salmon, and sardines are rich body NAD+ suppliers.

Mushrooms

Many individuals like mushrooms and them regularly in their diet. But did you know that mushrooms, particularly criminal champagne, also assist in increasing NAD levels naturally? Yes, that’s true. That’s true. So, enjoy eating the mushrooms and keep looking younger and younger!

Yeast

Yeast is used in the manufacture of bread and other bakery products. Yeast includes Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), which is a NAD precursor. Here is another cause for you when you visit the bakery to eat your favorite pastries and buns! Enjoy your favorite food while simultaneously raising NAD levels. How cool this is!

Green Vegetables

Green vegetables include all kinds of nutrients, which in several ways are advantageous. It was recently discovered that green veggies are also a rich source of NAD for the body. Some of these are peas and asparagus.

Whole Grains

Vitamin B3 also contains RN, a precursor for NAD, as stated earlier. When vegetables, foodstuffs, or grains are cooked or processed, they lose their nutrients and their supply of vitamins. It is therefore advisable to eat raw veggies and take whole grains rather than processed foods as well.

Cut Down On Alcoholic Beverages

NAD maintains the body’s entire metabolic function. Alcohol tends to interfere with these mechanisms and to impair NAD effectiveness. You should therefore avoid excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages because they are not beneficial for your health too.

FAQs About NAD+ Supplements

Q: Which NAD+ Supplements Are The Most Effective?

A: At the moment, the finest NAD+ supplements are those that are based on nicotinamide riboside. This NAD+ precursor is rapidly absorbed and has been demonstrated to raise blood NAD+ levels and cardiac NAD+ metabolite concentrations. While NMN, or nicotinamide mononucleotide, has shown promise in animal experiments, the most critical data currently available points to nicotinamide riboside. That is why our best-selling NAD+ supplements, such as Elysium Basis and TRU Niagen, include nicotinamide riboside.

Q: Can NAD+ Supplements Aid In The Treatment Of Alzheimer’s Disease?

A: While no rigorous clinical trials support the use of NAD+ supplements to alleviate Alzheimer’s disease symptoms, there is some indirect evidence from biochemistry research and animal models that supplementing with NAD+ may be beneficial. For instance, a 2018 scientific publication published in the journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry includes considerable research demonstrating that aging and degenerating brain cells had decreased NAD+ levels. While the efficacy of NAD+ supplements in terms of alleviating actual symptoms is still hypothetical, it is an intriguing possibility, and considerable research is currently underway.

Q: Is It Possible To Obtain NAD+ Through Food?

A: While the body cannot absorb the NAD+ content of food, NAD+ precursors such as tryptophan, nicotinamide riboside, and nicotinic acid may (vitamin B3). Cow’s milk, turkey, salmon, mushrooms, and nutritional yeast are all excellent sources of these NAD+ precursors.
If you are not getting enough NAD+ precursors in your diet, or if you want direct control over the amount of these precursors in your body, consider taking an NAD+ supplement in addition to these items. If you are taking a supplement for NAD+ and consuming a diet rich in NAD+ precursors, always take a daily dose of nicotinamide of 500 mg (vitamin B3). Increased levels of other NAD+ precursors appear to be harmless; however, excessive vitamin B3 can induce itchiness and flush the skin. However, if you are not taking a vitamin B3 supplement, you should be alright.

Q: How Are NADH And NA+ Different?

A: NADH and NAD+ are two different oxidation states of the same molecule. The “reduced” form is NADH, whereas the “oxidized” form is NAD+. When NAD+ is used in biological processes, it switches between reduced and oxidized forms, acting as a cog in the cellular machinery that generates and regenerates energy for your body.
The terminology is irrelevant when it comes to supplementation: neither NAD+ nor NADH can be absorbed directly. Rather than that, you must consume meals or supplements that contain precursor molecules that your body can convert to NAD+.

Q: Which NAD+ Sublingual Supplement Is The Best?

A: Sublingual, or under the tongue, supplements are a convenient way to take NAD+ precursors if you or the person you care for cannot swallow pills or dislike them. We were particularly impressed with Quicksilver Scientific NAD+ Gold’s formulation and ease of administration: the spray container was simple to use, and the nicotinamide mononucleotide formulation appears to be effective. While sublingual NAD+ supplements are beneficial for specific niche groups, capsule-based products are preferable for most individuals who take an NAD+ supplement: you receive a more constant dosage, a better value, and gain access to the most potent NAD+ precursors.

Q: Is It Better To Take NAD+ In The Morning Or Evening?

A: According to early pharmacokinetics research on NAD+, the time of day you take your NAD+ is probably irrelevant. This is because your NAD+ levels remain increased for an extended period following a single dose of NAD+. A single daily dose of the NAD+ supplement nicotinamide riboside maintained consistently high blood NAD+ levels (even though NAD+ has a relatively short elimination half-life).
If you see an increase in NAD+ levels, taking it immediately in the morning may be beneficial, but taking it at night is also acceptable—safety trials with NAD+ supplements have revealed no influence on sleep quality.

Top 11 NAD+ Supplements Conclusion

NAD+ supplements give the precursors necessary for your body to produce more NAD+, a critical molecule for cellular energy generation and wellness. NAD+ supplements are especially beneficial for older folks since they may help you maintain a healthy weight, protect your nervous system from degenerative damage, and minimize DNA damage and inflammation. The most effective method of increasing your NAD+ levels is to take a daily supplement that contains at least 100 mg of nicotinamide riboside, as this precursor to NAD+ has been shown in human trials to enhance NAD+ levels directly.
Notably, nicotinamide riboside boosts NAD+ and its metabolites in critical body parts, such as the heart. Suppose you wish to increase your energy production, strengthen your resistance to the harmful consequences of obesity, and potentially even maintain improved cognitive function far into old age. In that case, an NAD+ supplement may be beneficial.
RELATED: Cell Xtend Plus Reviews: Advanced Anti-Aging Support or Scam

Affiliate Disclosure:

The manufacturer links provided in this NAD+ booster review may result in a commission if you choose to purchase the supplement suggested at no extra cost to you. These funds contribute to our editorial team and research. Please take note that we only recommend top-quality products from trustworthy manufacturers.

Disclaimer:

Please note that any guidelines, advice, or recommendations given here should not be considered a substitute for advice from a professional medical practitioner. Before purchasing any products on our list, consult with your doctor, especially if you suffer from other medical conditions or have questions about the supplements discussed in this review. Each individual may experience different effects, as the benefits of the NAD+ booster supplements are not FDA-approved (Food and Drug Administration). The FDA has not verified the efficacy of NAD+ boosters. These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent or cure any disease.

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2020 Olympia Bodybuilding Contest Rescheduled for December – BarBend

 
On May 11, the organizers for the Olympia officially announced that the biggest contests in bodybuilding will be rescheduled and hosted in a different venue. The Joe Weider Olympia Fitness and Performance Weekend will now take place December 16th through 20th. It will still be in Las Vegas but the venue has been changed from the Orleans Arena to Planet Hollywood.
Dan Solomon reported the news officially on the Mr. Olympia LLC Instagram page via an IGTV video.
“Over the last several weeks our team here at Olympia headquarters has been working around the clock monitoring the situation throughout the world, we’ve been staying in contact with city leaders in Las Vegas, we’ve been working with the IFBB Professional League offices, and I’m pleased to share some big news…The 2020 Olympia will take place at the incredible Planet Hollywood resort right in the center of the Las Vegas strip…To give all the athletes they need to qualify and prepare, to give our business partners the time to stabilize following the quarantine, and to give everyone extra time to make plans to experience something unlike anything we’ve ever done before, the 2020 Olympia has been set for the middle of December. So this year the fitness industry will come together during the holiday season to crown new champions, and to celebrate the fitness and bodybuilding lifestyle.”

Olympia President Dan Solomon delivers the big news….and it’s the start of a new era for the fitness industry’s most prestigious event. #Olympia2020 @dansolomon_official @ifbb_pro_league @jake_wood_wos @phvegas @npcnewsonlineofficialpage @t_manion @mrolympiallc @tamerelguindy @npcworldwideofficial
A post shared by Mr. Olympia LLC (@mrolympiallc) on May 11, 2020 at 5:58am PDT

2020 will be remembered in bodybuilding as perhaps the sport’s most challenging year to date. The obvious reason is the COVID-19 pandemic that has affected the majority of the world at-large, starting with the 2020 Arnold Sports Festival Expo being cancelled. Aside from that, the Olympia had seen a contest in 2019 that may be remembered more for who didn’t compete than who did, a change in ownership in the early part of 2020, and now a rescheduling of the big contests to near the end of the year.

Reigning & Defending The Best in the World (Big Announcement Coming) #Olympia2020 @mrolympiallc @ifbb_pro_league @dansolomon_official @t_manion @jake_wood_wos @npcnewsonlineofficialpage @tamerelguindy @shaq
A post shared by Mr. Olympia LLC (@mrolympiallc) on May 6, 2020 at 5:32am PDT

In spite of all the changes and issues that the new owner, Jake Wood, and Solomon have faced, there are still high hopes for the success of the contest. The event is still planned to be former Mr. Olympia Dexter Jackson’s final appearance on that stage. Former multi-time 212 Olympia champion Flex Lewis will make his Olympia Open division debut this year and he along with Arnold Classic Champion William Bonac will challenge the reigning Mr. Olympia, Brandon Curry for bodybuilding’s world title.
This year will also mark the return of the Ms. Olympia for the first time since 2014, and Shaquille O’Neal has been announced as the Olympia Ambassador. There is no official word when contests will start taking place again but the new dates does serve as a positive for athletes who have yet to qualify. With some states re-opening and gyms starting to allow people to train again, they can start preparing for when they can return to the stage.
Featured Image and Video: Instagram/mrolympiallc

BarBend is an independent website. The views expressed on this site may come from individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of BarBend or any other organization. BarBend is the Official Media Partner of USA Weightlifting.
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Nick Walker Wins 2020 North American Bodybuilding Title – BarBend

 
There are a few different amateur contests that allow you to qualify as a professional bodybuilder. The most prestigious ones are the USA Championship, NPC Nationals, NPC Universe, and the North Americans. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the entire bodybuilding schedule had to be reshuffled. So even though we’re in September, the North American contest, which took place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is actually the first pro qualifier of the year.
Walker went into this contest as the overwhelming favorite and didn’t disappoint. Up to this contest, the closest that the New Jersey native had come to earning pro status was when he finished 2nd to Zack Merkel at the 2019 USA Championship. In that show he was a heavyweight. He competed here as a super-heavyweight.

We fucking did it!!!!!! @revive_md  (walker20) @ironrebel (MUTANT10) @getrawnutrition (mutant20) @megafitmeals (Mutant) @thepridefoods (MUTANT10) —— Coaching inquiries- [email protected] ————————————————————— #igbody #ig_fitness_freaks  #igfit #instagramfitness #instafit #instafitness #allornothing #fit #fitfam #fitbody #fitnessfreaks #eatcleantraindirty #trainharderthanme #dedication #dedicate #sofit #hardbody #undeniable #campjansen #pinksaltpump #walkernation @revive_md @ironrebel @getrawnutrition @walkernationusa @megafitmeals @thepridefoods
A post shared by Nick "the Mutant" Walker (@nick_walker39) on Sep 5, 2020 at 5:56pm PDT

In his last onstage appearance, Walker was criticized for his waist being a little loose. He was tighter here and presented his best physique to date. Standing 5 feet, 7 inches tall, he weighed around 250 pounds onstage. He now gets to choose whether he will jump right in and compete this season or wait. If he does make his pro debut right away, he still has time to qualify for the 2020 Olympia in Las Vegas, Nevada.

2020 NPC North American Championships Bodybuilding Overall Winner Nicholas Walker @nick_walker39 Take a look at the contest photos on npcnewsonline.com @npcnewsonlineofficialpage @npcnewstv @npcfitbody @frank_sepe @t_manion @garyudit @ifbb_pro_league @npcworldwideofficial @npcworldwidemexico @canadianphysiquealliance #npcnewsonline #nationalphysiquecommittee #npcnorthamerican #npcmensphysique #npcclassicphysique #npcbodybuilding #ifbbpittsburghpromasters #npcwomensphysique #npcwomensfigure #npcbikini #npcwellness #ifbbproleague #ifbbprofessionalleague #masters
A post shared by NPC News Online Official Page (@npcnewsonlineofficialpage) on Sep 6, 2020 at 4:21am PDT

Rounding out the top three of the super-heavyweight division was runner-up Jephte Cherenfant and Nathan Spear in 3rd place.
Fitzwater not only finished as the heavyweight champion, but he was runner-up to Walker for the Overall title. He could’ve competed as a super-heavyweight as well but opted to diet down to 223 pounds, which put him below the heavyweight cut off of 225 pounds.
Now that he is a pro, he will need to add overall size while maintaining his symmetry if he’s to win on the big stages. Finishing second to Fitzwater was Jordan Janowitz. Todd Whitting rounded out the Top 3.
Conner not only won the Over 35 class of his division, he took the open division as well. He competed at the division that ends at 198 pounds, but he appeared to be well over 200 onstage. The roundness of the muscle he displayed made him look larger than he actually was. He will likely take part in the 212 division now that he is no longer an amateur.
The other pro qualifying winner was Glaser in the Middleweight division. He is only his third year competing as an amateur, but it will now be his last one. With his size and proportions, he could do well in the 212 or in the Classic Physique division.
The next pro qualifying show is the NPC Universe contests which are scheduled to take place November 12-14 in Charleston, South Carolina.
Featured Images: Instagram/nick_walker39 and Instagram/npcnewsonlineofficialpage

BarBend is an independent website. The views expressed on this site may come from individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of BarBend or any other organization. BarBend is the Official Media Partner of USA Weightlifting.
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